At about the middle of September, the Red Lake bands of Chippewa assembled at the Red Lake River to await a delegation of American officials led by Alexander Ramsey. 

Ramsey arrived on the 21st under escort by a small detachment of soldiers. On the 23rd, the Pembina band arrived and the first session of the treaty council was held that day.

Both of the bands were encamped on a beautiful, grassy lowland only a short distance from the ford or "Old Crossing“ that allowed safe passage across the river. The white men encamped on a small hillock between the two Indian bands.

For about two weeks the chiefs and headmen bargained and discussed the terms of the treaty, always seeking better terms and conditions for their respective bands. On October 1st, all of the chiefs had agreed to the terms of the treaty except for Chief May-dwa-gun-on-ind of the Red Lake band who opposed the terms.

The following day (October 2nd) the council assembled again without May-dwa-gun-on-ind, and after some further discussion lasting about three and one-half hours, Red Lake Chief, Mons-o-Mo signed on behalf of the Red Lake people (along with other sub-chiefs, warriors and headmen).  Pembina chiefs Misko-mukwa (Red Bear), Aisanse (Little Shell II), and their headmen followed in signing – as did commissioners Alexander Ramsey and A.C. Morril (and their witnesses).

On October 3rd treaty goods, gifts, flags, and annuities (provisions) were distributed to the Red Lake and Pembina bands.  The treaty meeting at the Old Crossing ended on October 14th when Ramsey and his delegation finally left.

Kade M. Ferris M.S.
Treaty Monument at Huot, MN

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    Content is provided by Kade M. Ferris M.S.  Kade has a B.A. in anthropology and history from University of North Dakota, and a M.S. degree in anthropology from North Dakota State University.  Kade serves as the Historical Society board Vice President and is a professional historian and anthropologist with over 18 years of experience.  He serves as the THPO and Director of Natural Resources for the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, and is the Vice President of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Historical Society Board.


    June 2012
    March 2012